A Designated Emphasis (DE) is an area of specialization, such as a new method of inquiry, important field of application, or focus that maps near the edges, or overlaps with, the traditional disciplinary boundaries that define existing Ph.D. programs. The curriculum of a DE thus tends to focus on emerging fields or technologies that are interdisciplinary in nature and, by definition, are relevant to more than one doctoral program. DE's are interdisciplinary in nature and organized in a manner that resembles a Graduate Group, with Bylaws, a Chair, Executive Committee, curriculum, admissions policy, and faculty from more than one Ph.D. programs. However, the DE may exist only in affiliation with existing Ph.D. programs, and not independently. Completion of the requirements for a DE and an affiliated Ph.D. are reflection in the notation on the Doctoral Diploma: “Ph.D. in X with Emphasis in Y”.